Nyaung-U (green) is the main town in the north-east near the airport and bus-station, it is the central transportation hub for Bagan. The budget hotels, guest houses and restaurants are in the charming old town of Nyaung-U. For the evening out Nyaung-U (Nyaung-Oo) with its many restaurants is the place to be.
The busy north-south road from the market towards the airport and the monasteries can make Nyaung-U noisy; in some area's the monks wake up very early in the morning and diligently start their morning chanting. Nyaung-U has many guest houses and cheap hotels, and a few mid-range hotels.
There are two types of e-bikes, a medium size and a large one. Bigger is better but both types are quite good. The standard e-bike can do about 45 km/hour but when going top speed for a full day you might run out of battery power - slow down when you see the dial going to 80% charge. Most of the larger eBikes have a better battery endurance. If your eBike's top speed is less than 40 km/hour the battery is in a bad condition.
Be careful when you have no scooter experience; you won't become a good driver in an hour. That said there is little traffic in Bagan and no licence checks so you could try it if you are a good bicycle/moped driver and know your limitations. Drive slow and stay on the asphalt or hard dirt roads, but be careful because on soft sand patches you can crash. Test the e-bike before you rent it and get the phone number of the rental place in case a problem occurs.
And if you don't know how to ride a scooter, use a bicycle, horse cart, tuktuk or taxi. Be careful on soft sand, it is very slippery with 2 people on a bike. Perhaps walk a short stretch?
2019: Bagan Archaeological Zone tickets are 5 day entry validity - note the three has been replaced by a 5!
Bagan has introduced digital tickets on the 1st October 2018 but the checking of tickets remains a weak point; with the IT infrastructure in Myanmar it remains to be seen if digital tickets are an effective and efficient system, or money thrown at an expensive electronic system that a developing country does not need. Why re-invent the wheel if you can copy the perfectly operating Angkor Wat ticketing system?
The digital ticketing will solve some fraud problems, like passing on a ticket to someone else. But if Myanmar wants to professionalize the Bagan ticketing system it could have a look at the Angkor Wat pricing and ticketing system. Bagan has a quite reasonable archeological zone fee of 25.000 kyat or 16 dollars; but a time limit of five days (winter 2018/2019). Angkor park has a ticket validity of 1, 3 or 7 days and a watertight validation system.
And do take note that the Angkor Archaeological Zone pricing system is set up to entice people to stay longer. The cost of the one-day Angkor pass is $37, while a week-long visit pass – valid over a one-month period – costs $72; which amounts to about 10 dollars per day.
Some backpackers try to avoid the Bagan entrance fee; avoiding it is sometimes suggested by stingy travelers with a tight budget and the rather feeble excuse "I don’t want to give money to the government". In my opinion Bagan has a quite reasonable archeological zone fee; but the authorities should put up a website of the cost and validity of the Bagan Archeological Zone ticket. Perhaps have a three day ticket and a one week ticket. And explain the sanctions; which are relatively mild at the moment. One last tip: pay the 25.000 Kyat fee, since 20 dollars is well over 30.000 Kyat at the moment.
Angkor Wat and Bagan visitor statistics compared
It is getting busier in Burma but it's all quite relative if we compare it to Cambodia. In 2016 Bagan welcomed 280.000 visitors but ... Angkor Wat had 2.2 million visitors; almost 8 times more. There are about 650 hotels in Siem Reap (Angkor Wat) but less than 100 in Bagan. Around Christmas/New Year it can be busy in the small towns around Bagan or Inle lake; but most of Myanmar is not overrun with tourists - yet.
Graph: Angkor and Bagan visitor statistics compared (2011-2017).
If Myanmar wants to compete with the Angkor Wat tourism in Cambodia then they will need to improve their infrastructure significantly. Siem Reap has a large international airport, whereas Bagan (NYU) airport is a small airport which is only served by local flights. The building of new hotels is severely limited by the Bagan Archaeological Zone where new hotels are prohibited.
Promoting Bagan's sunset viewing.
The Shwesandaw Pagoda was always the favourite temple for sunset viewing. The five receding terraces used to be covered with hundreds of terracotta plaques depicting the scenes in several Jataka tales about the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. Unfortunately, during the restoration work in the 1990s these were removed or covered. Now the Shwesandaw is a rather plain, whitewashed temple.
The Shwesandaw Pagoda, 2017
The Shwesandaw Pagoda is a large "stepped" temple with quite steep stairs; but it is not fragile and very suitable for climbing. It is unlikely that visitors cause any damage. The small pagodas on the contrary are not suitable for climbing and should not be climbed. At the moment they are being climbed; they do get damaged and many of them are dangerous; there are no rails or good stairs and are not meant to be climbed. It may be a good idea to re-open the Shwesandaw for sunset viewing; for safety reasons and for a controlled viewing environment.
Bagan, 2017. Visitors clambering over a ledge at a small sunset pagoda;
using both hands and feet to try to avoid falling 7 meters down.
Note: Be careful climbing just any temple; most of the small pagoda's are not suitable for climbing and should not be climbed without permission. Several tourists have been wounded when climbing small temples, notably a 20-year-old American woman who fell to her death in November 2017 while trying to view the sunset from a 20-foot pagoda. au.news.yahoo.com
Sunset viewing sites - the end of pagoda climbing!
The sun has set over the sunset pagodas.
Sunset on the Pyathatgyi (PyathaDa/Pyathat Gyi), 2016.
Following the earthquake the government has started to build four new sunset hills; in august 2017 the construction of these lookout sites was completed. Once these were finished, in the last months of 2017, all the usual sunset pagodas were closed. In 2018 the Bagan authorities have closed all staircases for access to upper floors of ALL temples. The tour buses now drop their tourists at the viewing hills; these hills or mounds are lower then the old sunset pagodas, but do offer some reasonable or good views.
The major sunrise/sunset pagodas were: Shwesandaw Pagoda, Pyathada (Pyathat Gyi/Pyathatgyi), North Guni, South Guni, Bulethi/Buledi, Lawkaoushaung and Mingalazedi temple.
The alternative: sunset viewing hills.
There are a few alternatives for the sunset pagoda's: One possibility is using the viewing hills or mounds, another is the Bagan Viewing tower or Nann Myint; which is actually an upmarket restaurant. Unfortunately the tower is a bit far away from the main temples near Old-Bagan so you need a zoom lens. If you go to the Bagan Viewing tower you are supporting the government; the viewing tower is owned by the Htoo Trading Company Ltd. which also operates the Aureum Palace Resort next to it.
You will be approached by touts, young women and men who will show you small temples that are still open, for a few thousand Kyat. These temples are quite small compared to the sunset hills or mounds, and in my experience do not have good views. A good sunset photograph should have a few nice temples set off against the sunset. These temples do not have that, so they are not working for the great sunset photos that used to be possible from the famous Shwesandaw and Pyathatgyi temples.
There are three new sunset mounds around the Sulamani temple. One of the best sunset viewing places is the Nyaung Lat Phat Kan hill; which is situated just south of Sulamani pagoda. From this hill you have a good view of the large Dhammyangyi pagoda and a few smaller temples against the sunset.
Sunset crowd on the Nyaung Lat Phat Kan hill 2019.
Another possibility for sunrise viewing is the hot balloon trip, though it is quite expensive at 300 to 400 dollars for a flight of less than one hour.
BAGAN earthquake damage Map - May 2018
The map below is a new version modified by me; it has been cropped and improved and the names of major temples have been adjusted to modern spelling (e.g. Dhamma Yazika instead of Dhamma-ya-zi-ka). The major temple names are also in a large font.
The source of the “Accessibility Map” is by these agencies: the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Culture, the Nyaung U General Administration Office, and the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism, supported by JICA (the Japan International Cooperation Agency).
This map has been updated by me, because since August 2016 many temples have been fixed and re-opened; though there is still some scaffolding and tarpaulin on a few temple tops.
Bagan tourist map (2018); showing the closed and accessible temples.
Temple map of Bagan, Touristenkarte, karte von Bagan
Open / Partially / Closed temples.
- OPEN means accessible but not climable. Some temples need restoration and have scaffolding or tarpaulin covering the top.
- Partially open means that you can only visit a part of the temple.
- Closed means seriously damaged and closed for restoration.
Temple accessibility - 2018.
On the 24th of august 2016 Myanmar was hit by a 6.8-magnitude earthquake. The epicenter was in Chauk in central Myanmar, which is close to Bagan, where more than 400 temples were damaged. Chauk is just 30km south of Bagan on the way to Saleh, which is also a tourism destination. The Sulamani, North Guni and Mingalazedi temples were seriously damaged; as were the lesser known Gubyaukgyi (Nr.298 in Wetkyi-in) , SitanaGyi and Tayoke Pyay. Visitors are prohibited from entering some temples and pagodas.
A peek at the Thambula temple Buddha, Januari 2017.
Open Temples (major temples).
- Ananda Pahto - open. Has had a 6 year restoration until 2018. (facebook.com/IndiaInMyanmar )
- Ananda OK Kyaung - open (A Kyaung is Burmese for stone monastery building)
- Dhamma-yangyi - open
- Dhammayazika/Dhamma Yazika - open
- Gawdawpalin - open
- Htilominlo - open
- Pyathada (Pyathat Gyi/Pyathatgyi) - open (*Ex sunset temple)
- Shwesandaw - open (*Ex sunset temple) A solid brick temple so it can not be entered.
- Shwezigon Paya - open
- Sulamani - open, but under restoration.
Closed or partially open temples (major temples).
- Bulethi/Buledi - closed as of January 2018 for sunset.
- Mingalazedi/Mingalar Zedi pagoda - closed, undergoing major repairs.
- Thatbyinnyu/That-Byin-Nyu - open, restoration has started in 2018.
*]Note: Open means accessible but not ascendable. All sunset temples have been closed in 2017; read more below.
- Gubyaukgyi temple (Nr.298 in Wetkyi-in, near Nyaung-U) - Open
- Gubyaukgyi temple (Nr.1323 in Myinkaba village) - Open
- Lawkaoushaung/Law Ka Ou Shaung Pagoda - Open
- Loka Hteik Pan - Open
- North Guni/Myauk Guni - Open (*Ex sunset temple, now closed for sunset)
- South Guni/Taung Guni - Open (*Ex Sunset temple, now closed for sunset)
- Tayok-pye/Tayoke Pyay - Open (In 2017 the name changed to Narathihapatae Paya)
- Thisa Wadi/Thitsarwadi - Open
- Thabeik Hmauk - Open
- Thambula/Tham Bula Paya - closed
- Upali Thein - open
The sunset photo's after the Bagan earthquake: scaffolding on many temples.
The statistics - the number of damaged temples
There are an estimated 2200 temples in Bagan; many of these are small stupas or solid brick temples without entrance. There are perhaps only about a dozen "grand temples" like the Ananda Pahto, Dhamma Yazika and Sulamani temple that are on the must-see list of most visitors.
Of the 2200 temples 453 have had earthquake damage; it is usually the top that has been displaced or fallen off. The quake reduced 17 small temples and stupas to rubble. However most temples have just minor structural damage like brickwork damage and are still accessible. Therefore there is still plenty to see; for example the Sulamani will need extensive repairs but the Htilominlo temple looks strikingly similar - at least on the outside.
The quake damage includes 56 ancient buildings with murals or Jakata wall paintings (mmtimes.com). Many temple tops are scaffolded and partly covered for restoration work; unfortunately they use large orange, blue or green tarpaulins (plastic sheets) for this.
UNESCO Myanmar is now coordinating an international team to work on the monuments. The renovation of the first group of 41 “priority monuments” is expected to take around two years. A total refurbishment of the 453 damaged monuments may cost up to 12 million US-dollars. The famous Thatbyinnyu Pagoda in Bagan will be repaired as a priority: mmtimes.com
Structural damage in temple nr. 998, Januari 2017.
Earthquake damage to pagodas and stupa's.
The Dhamma Yazika / Dhammayazika pagoda has suffered damage to the front entrance; and to the top on the dome. The temple is open to visitors.
The top of the Dhamma Yazika pagoda has been damaged, January 2017
The quake has destroyed or damaged many small buildings; but also revealed an unknown 11th century stupa which was covered by a more recent brick structure.
The quake has revealed an unknown 11th century stupa.
The Seinnyet sisters - temple or pagoda?
The Seinnyet temples are 2 temples located between Myinkaba and New Bagan, just north of New Bagan. The closest to the road is Seinnyet Ama Pahto which means elder sister; behind it is Seinnyet Nyima Paya, the younger sister. Pahto means temple and Paya means pagoda, so the 2 sisters are actualy one temple and one pagoda. The Ananda Pahto is therefore a temple and not a pagoda, and the same goes for Dhammayangyi Pahto (Dhammayangyi temple).
A temple has at least one entrance but usually 4, so a temple can be visited inside. A Burmese pagoda is a large massive conical shape which can be covered in gold; though it is usually made from cheaper metals like brass. Famous examples of pagoda's are the Shwezigon Paya and Dhammayazika Paya in Bagan, or the Shwedagon pagoda in Yangon which is covered in real gold.
Seinnyet Ama was built by queen Seinnyet; Seinnyet Nyima is a pagoda built in the 12th century by her sister. The top is a stylized umbrella in the form of concentric rings. The foto below shows the typical damage the quake did to many temples: the top has been shaken and damaged, but it is fortunately still standing.
2016 Quake damage to Seinnyet Nyima pagoda
The best tablet or smartphone online map for Bagan.
View Larger Map
If you want to use a GPS-map in Bagan the Open Street Map (OSM, see the map above) is much better than Google maps; because OSM shows the many footpaths as well as most of the smaller temples in Bagan. Open Street Map seems to show all of the 2200 stupas and temples in Bagan! For hotel locations however Google maps is more accurate than OSM.
Maps.me is a useful mapping app based on Open Street Map; it's available on iPad, iPhone and Android phones and tablets. Maps.me does not need an internet connection, it works offline using only a GPS signal.
The Phwa Saw brick monastery confusion.
The Phwa Saw brick monastery is a long-standing error in the Tripadvisor reviews; it has been there for many years.
The Shwezigon pagoda is the golden pagoda in Nyaung U village; the Phwa Saw brick monastery is an obscure brick monastery not anywhere near Nyaung-U. Now someone foolishly put a photo of the Shwezigon pagoda as a thumbnail on the review of the Phwa Saw brick monastery in Tripadvisor. Because the Shwezigon thumbnail is just a few stupas (?) most people scroll down past it and mistakenly identify the golden pagoda they see as the Phwa Saw brick monastery ... which it clearly is not.
So all the Tripadvisor reviews of the Phwa Saw brick monastery are actually about the golden domed Shwezigon pagoda ... hilarious! And if you do an image-google on the Phwa Saw brick monastery you see images of ... the Shwezigon pagoda! Alternative facts can turn a dull brick monastery into a golden pagoda.
The real Phwa Saw brick monastery.
The serious quake damage inside Phwa Saw brick monastery.
Some visitors of Bagan unfortunately do not know the names of the temples they are visiting. The good news is that the real Shwezigon pagoda does get many more reviews than the rather peculiar brick monastery. Many people also confuse the the Ananda Ok Kyaung monastery with the large Ananda Temple, they are adjacent buildings but totally different.
The official name for the Phwa Saw brick monastery is Hsutaungpyi/Hsu-Taung-Pyi monastic complex (different from the Hsu Taung Pyi Pagoda). By the way, it seems the Phwa Saw brick monastery is so seriously damaged that even trying to support it with scaffolding is hazardous; it looks like the vault might collapse during the next monsoon.
UPDATE October 2017: After many years Tripadvisor has finally removed the Phwa Saw Brick Monastery from their reviews.
Links, Youtube and Wikipedia.
Some Youtube video's on Bagans' earthquake damage.
- youtube.com - Lasers and Drones Help Preserve Ancient Temples (Scientific American)
- youtube.com - Drone footage of the North Guni and Sulamani temple damage.
Bagan on Wikipedia and other sites.
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Gordon Luce was one of the first researchers of Bagan; in his now rare book "Old Burma - Early Pagan" (1969) he writes: "Most of the famous pagodas of Burma have been repaired so often that one can say little for certain about the original shape of their upper parts."
Copyright © 2017 - 2018 R. Schierbeek.
About the author: aboutme.htm